/Parent 2 0 R Waste. Data from Arena et al. WCA Waste Management Class Action Settlement Class Eligibility All individuals and entities in the United States which paid Defendants or Released Parties one or more of the Fees at any time within the applicable statutes of limitation for each claim through the date notice of this settlement is provided to such individuals and entities. Eng. /StructParent 101 mental Performance of Alternative Solid Waste Management. The type of information that can typically be produced by an LCA is described. Lifecycle techniques are introduced for comparing the overall environmental impacts and economic costs. %���� Paper production from virgin fiber is, located in Sweden (where most of the fiber used in Italy. As expected, the results showed better environmental scores after both the implementation of new procedures and the integration of operations. Part 1, Finnveden, M. Goedkoop, M. Haushild, E. G. Hertwick, P. Hof-, stetter, O. Jolliet, W. Klopffer, W. Krewitt, E. Lindeijer, R. Muller-. A, mobile grate furnace is the main component of the, combustion section. Mass stream overview of an integrated recovered paper-processing mill. /Parent 2 0 R The energetic (and then environmental) saving is so remarkable, even for PE, being 40–49 MJ for the recycled polymer and about 80 MJ that for the virgin polyolefin. has been performed at two levels; first, the emissions accounted for in the inventory stage have been arranged into impact categories to obtain an indicator for each category; and secondly, the weighting of environmental data to a single unit has been applied. 10 0 obj Energy and fuel consumption were the crucial “hot spots” to focus on for efficiency and mitigation procedures at plant. /Subtype /Link This paper concludes that single-use items are harmful to the environment regardless of their material. Radioactive waste management is necessary to isolate radioactive waste from living things. Other analyses (e.g. Perspectives on Energy and Material Recovery from Paper. Here environmental professionals can learn to interpret LCA methodology and results. /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] terdam by ship and from there to central Italy by train, 1.17 t of paper waste and its transport to a landfill, as, paper from virgin fiber to provide the product made by, recycling in scenario b (Figure 4). Note that, since the average tropo-, spheric lifetime of all these gases exceeds the tropo-, spheric mixing time, it is not important where the, emissions occur; i.e., climate change is truly a global, impact category. to develop a computer-based decision support tool to evaluate integrated municipal solid waste management strategies in the The two nonrecycling scenarios. It is Therefore, scenarios a and c, in which paper is not recycled, make, environmental impact categories for each of the main, recycled products for packaging paper and board were, quantified, to investigate differences between the eco-, performances of these products. describing the main structural upgrades carried out in the plant over the years 1996–2011. They were calculated from, plant operating records or from official documents and. recovering materials and/or energy from the waste. The environmental aspects of different waste management options for paper materials are the subject of an ongoing debate. /Subtype /Link The focus will be the Italian system for paper and paperboard recycling and that for all plastic packagings. WASTE MANAGEMENT . << Ciascuno scenario di gestione viene analizzato con riferimento sia ad un contesto urbano di grande scala che ad un contesto provinciale di minori dimensioni. (i) Energy and Resource Consumption. The LCA study also quantified other emissions, to air and water (Figure 14) as well as solid waste, production (Figure 15). Note that the key legend must be read from, Commercialized in Italy for the Preparation of Paper and Board Packaging, tion in Italy. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. If, on the other hand solid waste (which in other cases would have been landfilled), or biofuels are the alternative energy source, fossil fuels will not be replaced. The comparison was conducted by adopting 1 ton of MSW as the functional unit, and the net contribution from energy recovery to power generation was distinguished by defining consistent national grid electricity mixes for every year considered. 2. an “average” recycled product as the reference scenario. This paper This paper was selected by the WM&R Editorial Team as having contributed to the current Impact Factor, based on citations and quality By evaluating the circularity and environmental implications of current waste management, it can be shown at which points in the system the most improvement needs to be made for each material in order to facilitate the transition towards a circular economy. For the environmental aspect global warming, acidification and human toxicity seem to be the most relevant. Figure 12 shows the emissions of, greenhouse gases, expressed as kilograms of CO, lent for a time horizon of 100 years, for each of the paper, waste management scenarios, distinguishing between, the contributions from the different stages of the life, cycles. The ReCiPe methodology was applied in the LCA presented in this study (Goedkoop et al., 2008). The inventory also takes into account all the, environmental burdens related to the conditioning of, As noted above, environmental comparisons between, different products and waste management scenarios are, dominated by energy consumption and greenhouse gas, emissions. /A 29 0 R ref 4). organizing the LCI inputs and outputs into specific, evaluates the study in order to derive recommendations, and conclusions. In the past, the industrial sewage was discharged into the environment without considering its consequences. Climate change and energy consumption per kg of Asiago cheese was 10.1 kg CO2-eq and 70.2 MJ, respectively. >> An analytical comparison between three selected scenarios is reported with reference to some crucial environmental impact categories. Waste Management Business Recycling Guidelines Clean Paper and Cardboard Cardboard (flattened), copy paper, file folders, magazines, newspaper, brochures, envelopes (windows, paper padding OK), phone books, paperback books, catalogs, paper bags, and shredded paper … processes with exclusively mechanical cleaning, i.e.. such as testliner, corrugated medium, uncoated board, All the processes aim to separate paper fibers from. tion refers to processes that increase the acidity of water, and soil systems. Our proposed framework defines three sustainability aspects of food packaging, namely direct environmental effects of packaging, packaging-related food losses and waste, as well as circularity. /Resources 16 0 R All rights reserved. /Type /Catalog A. Consistent, with the general approach illustrated by Figure 2, it was, assumed that there is a demand for recovered material, and that virgin and recycled materials are equivalent, substitutable products. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas generation of the main products commercialized in Italy for production of paper and. is really just the material that is left over, rejected or thrown away from anything we do be it working, playing or eating. (a and c) each consume 2.2 t of wood for each t of pulp, albeit from managed plantation forests; the final com-, parisons will be very different if the wood is not sourced, from sustainably managed forests. Essa avaliação considerou todas as fases do sistema de gestão dos RSD: coletas regular e seletiva, reciclagem, disposição final e transportes intermediários. The recycling scenario shows good results, in terms of very low emissions of dust into the atmo-, sphere and pollutants into water. We offer a variety of trash collection and recycling services and solutions, no matter your needs. /CropBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Indicators selection were carried out by performing an extensive literature review on existing publications dealing with the different pillars of sustainability and setting a number of selection criteria to prioritize indicators that are relevant to the sector. The real obstacles faced in many areas is its solid waste management, and successful administration of the strong waste created turns into an indispensable piece of a brilliant city. The recycling scenario also shows a limited, production of solid waste, which could be further. The foreground includes all the, other transport steps, compaction, sorting, and repro-, cessing with treatment of process waste. This compari-, son has been the subject of much debate in the litera-, ture, usually focusing on the question “recycle or, the specific economic conditions in which the recycling, operations are embedded, most importantly on the, energy source which is displaced by energy recovery, from waste, what energy source is used for the recycling, operations, what material is replaced by the recycled, fibers, and whether water is scarce in the region where. /F 4 << /Parent 2 0 R ucts with the specific waste used for its production. It is the goal of waste management to treat waste in a safe and proper manner, in order to minimize harm or damage to the The, results are summarized in Table 1, showing the prin-, cipal environmental burdens and the operations in the, nario covers dedicated combustion of 1.17 t of collected, paper waste with recovery of electricity despatched via, the distribution grid and includes conventional produc-, net calorific value (LHV) of 13 MJ/t has been evaluated. A ACV quantifica as cargas ambientais ao longo do ciclo de vida de uma atividade e está normatizada pela International Organization for Standardization (ISO) e pela Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT). Nesses casos, obteve-se um resultado geral negativo nas emissões, por causa da reciclagem, em comparação às outras etapas consideradas (coletas seletiva e regular, consumos de energia nos galpões, Central de Triagem - CT - , transportes e aterro sanitário). The authors discuss numerous challenges identified in the review that arise in combining methods, among them computational load, the increasing number of assumptions, guaranteeing coherence between the models used, and the large quantities of data required. Therefore, the comparisons are dependent on, the very different energy mixes used to generate elec-. /StructParents 24 >> And to make your life easier, in some areas we're able to bundle our most popular trash removal services so you can manage them all in one convenient place. /Resources 22 0 R Front Load Dumpsters and Containers. In order to assess the environmental impacts linked to higher collection rates, a Life Cycle Assessment model was built that considers the reduced need for virgin materials as the system's loops are closed. The, relative insignificance of emissions from transport, confirms that international trade in raw or processed, biomaterials (such as paper) can result in environmental, The study was carried out with the financial support, of CONAI, the Italian National Consortium for Packag-, ing Recycling. /BS 28 0 R IWM-2 is delivered on CD inside the book. endobj /StructParents 22 Data reported in the paper are original calcula-, tions made by the authors and cannot be considered as, official information of any of the Government Organiza-, (4) Finnveden, G.; Ekvall, T. Life Cycle Assessment as a, (5) Arena, U.; Mastellone, M. L.; Perugini, F. Life Cycle. x��\Ys�F�~���#xK�Ѝ=7�Yr2ʌ��L��-I�$�@)ʯ�gk�����n�r�����ś뛶�Vy�;�}��y�)������;�_/^��s�K��꼯���ᇷw�Λ���w����Y�ބ��:�R��|�:��o�,�t��aP� ���4J{:�χ��GqO��+�)��ѽy��v�p��i)О}Y⭖%4�>�ͶZ:���S�e6W��w}�QK�����. endobj The results confirm that material recycling may not be the best environmental option. This aspect is even more complex: national policies for implementing greener and renewable energy sources would result in a lower impact of the national energy mix and, hence, in a lower net avoided burden from energy recovery. Each city in the county is responsible for The recycling scenario b represents the reference case, with the other two scenarios defined by their differences, from this scenario. Taiwo., “Waste management towards 10 000 t/y or less, usually of more specialized pulp. endobj constructed and is currently under demonstration. In Figure 13 contributions to this, impact category are expressed in the conventional way, weighted by the hydrogen release potentials reported, performance of the landfilling scenario (a) is particularly. A. generation of waste is the first option that should be considered. Scenarios a and c were represented, by the best available technologies, to represent a pos-, sible new investment in alternatives to scenario b. Foreground and background systems for waste management (after Clift et al. /Resources 25 0 R The oldest publications found [45], from 2000, was unique to the Scopus GIS list. Particular attention is devoted to system definition leading to rational and clear compilation of the Life Cycle Inventory, with appropriate ‘credit’ for recovering materials and/or energy from the waste. Para as emissões atmosféricas associadas à destruição da camada de ozônio e à acidificação, as emissões negativas relacionadas à reciclagem não foram suficientes para obter um balanço geral negativo. This paper goes for giving an IoT based building answer for handle the issues looked by the present strong waste administration framework. Hence, the, environmental benefits of recycling depend on the, balance between the environmental impacts of primary, fiber production, recycling, and other beneficial uses of, waste paper, such as energy production. The time scale for quantifying the leachate and biogas, emissions is related to the time required for the landfill, to become fully mineralized, that is, 30 years, on the. performance of the new recycling scenario was assessed by means of LCA This paper investigates whether banning single-use plastic items is an appropriate strategy to protect the environment. For each of the unit processes, and in order to increase the data quality, all the data of interest were collected during technical visits to several selected plants active in Italy or deduced by official documents and certificate declarations of the same companies. recovery of energy from waste paper in Italy is to be, preferred over recycling or landfilling. This will be made possible by using such method as the criticality assessment that enable the consideration of geological and geopolitical supply risk as well as the characterization of the system dependence to a specific resource. Reduce your garbage bill by putting all of your recyclable materials in our container. The review by, associated with this type of mill (Figure 6). LCA's holistic perspective of products' environmental performance makes it a key concept for environmental management in industry as well as for environmental policy-making in government. The environmental aspects of different waste management options for paper materials are the subject of an ongoing debate. A product's environmental life cycle progresses from raw material extraction through production, use and finally to waste management. It is estimated that the amount of solid waste per capita is around 500 kilograms per year. A farm gate-to-plant gate life cycle assessment was performed to estimate the environmental impact of Asiago Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheese, the fourth most produced Italian PDO cheese. To make it more widely accessible, this edition provides the new tool in Windows format, with greatly improved input and output features, and the ability to compare different scenarios. /MediaBox [0 0 595.3800048828 841.9799804688] Packaging waste enters the fore-, ground system at the point where it is collected as a, segregated stream or delivered to a drop-off site han-, dling segregated waste. that, for almost all the significant impact categories. Atmo-, spheric releases are diffuse emissions of the biogas not, collected (45% of produced biogas) and also oxidized, biogas from the gas engine and flare. Improper collection and disposal of solid waste that is a heterogeneous mixture of different materials like plastic, paper, metal, glass, earth, stone, soil, kitchen waste, market waste etc. Solid Waste Work Group – White Paper 6 The Thurston County Solid Waste program (in the Public Works Department) is responsible for the overall administration of the County’s solid waste system. ; (13) Cowell, S. J.; Fairman R.; Lofstedt, R. E. Use of Risk. waste reduction, reuse, recovery, recycling, source separation and composting. ing from fossil fuel use, and the “renewable” fraction, deriving from biological materials and therefore re-, moved from the atmosphere in the next tree-cropping, cycle. 18, 2004, foreground, usually by supplying or receiving material. Higher english persuasive essay plan number the following sections of a research paper in the correct order essay on sports in english. at the sorting and recycling stages. The results confirm that material recycling may not be the best environmental, option. A essay change importance of evaluation essay, case study on training and development at motorola pdf, the essays of warren buffett lessons for corporate america fifth edition pdf management waste research Solid paper pdf. These benefits are not offset by energy use, in primary paper production, because this takes place, in Sweden, where the energy system is much less carbon. The framework is oriented towards the Product Environmental Footprint initiative and the Circular Economy Package of the European Union. /Contents 23 0 R Scenario analysis was about allocation strategies and time of cheese aging. ing stages heavy particles, flat contaminants, stickies, and fine sand are removed, leading to deflaking of the, stock to give good optical homogeneity. /Type /Page System expansion method used in the study, with the indication of the functional output of primary interest and of avoided burdens coming from additional functional outputs from each systems. /StructParent 102 contributions coming from the different stages. endobj While no articles dealt directly with simultaneous use of all three methods, several acknowledged the potential of this. Life-cycle assessment concepts and methods are currently being applied to evaluate integrated municipal solid waste management /Type /Pages >> The text also provides indepth coverage of LCA applications and offers many useful exercises to help prepare for the 10 major LCA exercise projects that are also included. Dal punto di vista metodologico le analisi energetiche ed ambientali verranno svolte secondo l’approccio LCA, in un’ottica di confronto tra le emissioni aggiuntive nell’ambiente associate a tutte le attività di recupero e le emissioni evitate grazie alla sostituzione di materie prime vergini e di combustibili fossili. By, contrast, the landfilling (a) and energy recovery (c), scenarios have substantial avoided burdens, again, carbon-intensive because they displace energy produc-, Interventions Related to the Production o, “Average” Packaging Product Obtained from the, Recycling Chain, As Obtained from On-Site, Investigations or by Assuming Compliance with, paper and board waste from household premises (t), paper and board waste from commercial premises (t), electric energy from biogas combustion (kW h), Generation in Italy and Sweden in the Reference Period, board packaging, indicating contributions from the different stages of the recycling chain. Design/methodology/approach – A computer based from gate-to-cradle life cycle assessment (LCA) model has been developed by setting up appropriate expanded system boundaries, in order to carry out the assessment in the context of the whole, This paper analyses different alternatives for solid waste management that can be implemented to enable the targets required by the European Landfill and Packaging and Packaging Waste Directives to be achieved in the Valencian Community, on the east coast of Spain. << Waste management is improving day by day with new research and thinking. * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Analyses such as the one presented, here can be used to show how a country might modify, its energy economy to reduce dependence on fossil, carbon-based fuels. In, each scenario, the paper waste management sites (land-, filling, recycling, combustion with energy recovery) are, located in Italy. The first observation is that scenario c, recycling and 67% less than landfilling. has been used as the reference system for this study. aluate the flow rate of odour from the sources. The introduction, of electronic information systems has not displaced, graphics-quality paper for office documents or newsprint, for mass media, and board still competes successfully, with plastic and composite packaging materials. These are summarized in Table 2. cal energy and steam used in paperboard reprocessing. The plastics ban only leads to a small reduction of global plastic marine pollution and thus provides only a partial solution to the problem it intends to solve. The low emission of “volatile, organic compounds non-methane” for the energy recov-, ery scenario is again explained by the avoided burdens, related to energy savings in Italy (see Figure 9) that. In, the case of the paper waste management scenarios, considered here, the dominant impacts are energy use, and emissions of greenhouse gases, with acid gas, emissions, water consumption, and solid waste volumes.
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